Beijing Roast Duck


    When it comes to Chinese famous dishes, we may still think of the top ten traditional Chinese dishes. The top ten Chinese dishes are Beijing roast duck, Sichuan Mapo Tofu, Xihu vinegar fish, Feilong soup, Wuwei smoked duck, Dongpo meat, steamed bacon, spicy chicken, donganzi chicken and steamed Wuchang fish. Today, let’s talk about the Beijing roast duck from Beijing!

History and development of Beijing roast duck

It is said that the Peking duck is selected from the Beijing duck, which is the best meat duck in the world. According to legend, the breeding history of this kind of pure and precious Peking Duck began about a thousand years ago. It was due to the fact that the emperors of Liao, Jin and Yuan Dynasties occasionally obtained this pure white wild duck, and later raised it for the emperor’s hunting. It has been continued until this fine pure breed was obtained, and it has been cultivated into a rare meat duck. That is to say, a kind of white duck fattened by filling method, so it is called “stuffing duck”! Not only that, Peking duck was introduced to Europe and the United States a hundred years ago! Therefore, as a high-quality variety, Beijing duck has become the world’s rare duck species for a long time!

In the early Ming Dynasty, the common people loved Nanjing salted duck, and the emperors and nobles also loved to eat it. It is said that Emperor Zhu Yuanzhang had “a roast duck for solar eclipse”! The imperial chefs in the palace tried to develop a new way of eating duck food to please the Emperor today, so they developed two kinds of roast duck with barbecued pork and roast duck with stewed donkey. The roast duck with barbecued pork is represented by Quanjude, while the roast duck with stewed donkey is famous for its “cheap house”. Later, after Ming Chengzu (Zhu Di) usurped the throne and moved the capital to Beijing, he also took away many experts of Nanjing roast duck.

During the reign of Jiajing (emperor Shizong Zhu Houyi of Ming Dynasty), roast duck spread from the court to the people. The old “cheap square” roast duck shop was set up in the rice market Hutong of Caishikou, which was also the first roast duck restaurant in Beijing. At that time, the name was called “Jinling sliced duck”! On the front of the old “cheap square”, there is a special line of small characters: Jinling roast duck!

    In 1864, Quanjude, the most famous roast duck restaurant in Beijing, was also opened, and the technology of roast duck developed to the era of “hanging stove”. It is roasted with fruit trees and has a special fragrance. It not only makes the roast duck fragrant, but also makes “Beijing roast duck” replace “Nanjing roast duck”. The “Jinling slice skin duck” can only be seen on the menu of Hong Kong, Macao, Shenzhen, Guangzhou and other southern cities. The rest of the place is basically “Beijing roast duck”

   After the founding of new China, the reputation of Beijing roast duck is growing day by day, and more famous in the world. It is said that Premier Zhou enjoyed and paid close attention to this famous dish in his lifetime, entertained foreign guests and tasted roast duck. In order to meet the needs of social development, today’s duck shop roasting operation has been more modern, more delicious flavor!

Making and eating of Beijing roast duck

The traditional roasting methods of Beijing roast duck are mainly divided into stewed donkey roast duck method and hanging oven roast duck method.
Roast duck in stew oven: have furnace door, use sorghum straw as fuel. In the process of roasting, the rice straw and other fuels such as the furnace are burned first, and then the fire is put out after the inner wall of the oven is heated to a certain temperature. Then the duck is put into the oven, and the door of the oven is closed, and the duck is roasted and cooked by the heat of the furnace wall. During the whole process, there is no open fire in the duck, and the duck body is not turned, and the duck is put into and out of the furnace at a time. Due to the use of furnace wall residual temperature, high air humidity, low oil consumption, noisy duck breast. Famous for stewing donkey roast duck is Beijing’s time-honored “cheap square”!

Hanging oven roast duck method: no furnace door, using fruit wood (jujube or pear wood) as fuel, this fuel is resistant to burning, smokeless, and has a fragrance after burning. When the duck is put into the furnace, the position of the duck should be changed regularly with the help of a boom so that the duck can be heated evenly and can be roasted all over the body. The duck embryo was heated evenly and strongly, the subcutaneous fat had melted, and the duck skin was crisp and the meat was tender. The method of hanging oven roast duck and stewing donkey roast duck slice is different. Hanging oven roast duck pays attention to every piece of meat must have skin, and braised donkey roast duck is separated from skin and meat!

The main production procedures of Beijing roast duck are as follows: Slaughtering duck, scalding, selecting wool, pumping, pulling out bore, washing bore, hook, scalding skin, beating sugar, drying skin, slicing, ingredients and so on!

The specific roasting operation of Beijing roast duck
Preparation of Beijing roast duck

1. Raw material treatment: 2.5-3kg healthy ducks were selected and slaughtered by cutting three tubes
To kill and bleed blood, scald the hair with 55-60 ℃ water for about 3 minutes. Scald the hair and stretch the hair lightly and quickly. The hair should be pulled clean without damaging the skin. Then a small opening should be made under the duck’s wing to take out the viscera. The viscera should be intact. The feet and wings of the duck should be cut off. Then, the cavity, neck and beak of the duck should be washed and cleaned. The soft tissue in the back intestine and cavity should be taken out Make duck skin bloodless.

2. Scalding skin and hanging color: the duck body is scalded with caramel boiling water from top to bottom for 3-4 times, and then the duck body is poured with sugar water. Generally, the sugar water is prepared according to the ratio of maltose and water in the ratio of 1:6-7.

3. Cool duck: hang the scalded duck in a cool and ventilated place to dry the duck skin. Generally, the duck is cooled for 24 hours in spring and autumn, and 4-6 hours in summer.

4. Roasting: first, plug the duck’s anus with a plug, and then pour boiling water into the duck’s neck from the knife edge, which is called “soup filling”. Then, color the duck again, and then enter the oven. Jujube is the best wood for Beijing roast duck, followed by peach, apricot and pear wood. After the wood is ignited and the oven temperature rises to above 200 ℃, the duck can be roasted. The temperature of the roast duck is the key. Generally, the temperature of the duck is controlled between 250-300 ℃. During the roasting process, the orientation of the duck is adjusted according to the color of the duck. Generally, it takes about 30 minutes to roast. The maturity of the duck can be judged according to the color of the duck cavity when it comes out of the oven. When the soup is pink, it indicates that the duck is 7-8 When the soup is light white, it is 9-10 minutes, but when the soup is milky white, it means that it has been overcooked. We must pay attention to this point.

5. After the duck is out of the oven, it is best to brush a layer of sesame oil immediately to increase the brightness of duck skin.

How to eat Beijing roast duck

The first way to eat Beijing roast duck: it is said that it was started by the ladies in the big house. They don’t eat onions or garlic, but they like to dip the crisp duck skin with fine white sugar. After that, when they saw the female guests coming, they would follow the roast duck and serve a small plate of sugar.

The second way to eat Beijing roast duck: sweet flour paste with green onion strips, can be accompanied by Cucumber Strips, radish strips, using chopsticks to pick a little sweet sauce, spread on the lotus leaf cake, put a few pieces of roast duck on top, and then put a few green onion strips, Cucumber Strips or radish strips, roll up the lotus leaf cake, which is really delicious.

The third way to eat Beijing roast duck: mashed garlic with sweet sauce, or with radish strips, etc. the duck meat is also a popular seasoning in early years. Mashed garlic can relieve the greasy. Dip the sliced roast duck with mashed garlic and sweet flour sauce, which adds a touch of spicy flavor to the fresh flavor and makes the flavor more unique!

Beijing roast duck

1: Pay attention to season

Eating roast duck must be in the right season, bad season will affect the taste. Tasters claim that roast duck tastes best in winter, spring and autumn. The reason is that the meat of Beijing duck in winter and spring is fat and tender; in autumn, the weather is clear, the temperature and humidity are particularly suitable for making roast duck, and the ducks at this time are also relatively fat. In summer, the climate is hot and the air humidity is high. At this time, the meat of Beijing duck is less fat and thin, and the quality is poor. The duck skin after roasting is easy to grow (i.e., not crisp), so the taste is relatively poor.

2: Pay attention to slice method

Because the slice is good, not only the dish shape is better, but also the taste is more beautiful. After the roast duck is roasted, it is necessary to slice the skin and meat in time before the duck breast collapses. At this time, the duck meat is crisp and delicious. The method of slicing duck is also particular. First, slice the duck skin while it is hot, crispy and delicious, and then slice the duck meat. The other is that the pieces are thin but not broken. A 2kg duck can slice more than 100 pieces of duck meat, and the size is even, like clove leaves, the taste is crisp, fragrant, tender and unique.

3: Pay attention to seasoning

Why can’t roast duck eat directly? This is because ducks are fatter and they are very greasy if they eat them directly. There are three main ways to eat Beijing roast duck with different seasonings.

The first kind: use chopsticks to pick out a little sweet flour sauce, spread it on the lotus leaf cake, put a few pieces of roast duck slices on it, put a few green onion strips, cucumber strips or radish strips, roll up the lotus leaf cake, which is the most common eating method.
The second kind: mashed garlic with soy sauce, can also be matched with radish strips. Mashed garlic can relieve the greasy. Dip the sliced roast duck with mashed garlic and soy sauce. In the delicious flavor, it adds a little bit of spicy and the flavor is more unique.

Third: some people do not like to eat onion, garlic, like the crisp duck skin, dipped in fine sugar to eat. It’s especially suitable for women and children. It is understood that eating roast duck also has a great nutritional way. According to professionals, roast duck is often served together with green onion, garlic and cucumber strips, which can not only balance acid and alkali, but also contain vitamin C and dietary fiber, which can reduce cholesterol and increase the solubility of fiber and protein, and help digestion. The first seasoning method is now the most commonly used, in which the sweet sauce is produced by Beijing “Liubiju”, otherwise the taste can not be regarded as authentic.

4: Pay attention to food supplement

There are two kinds of auxiliary food commonly used to eat roast duck, one is lotus leaf cake, the other is hollow sesame cake. The lotus leaf cake can be peeled two pieces at a time, and each piece is smeared with sweet flour sauce, and then the scallion, cucumber strip (or green radish strip), roast duck slice, or garlic paste, soy sauce, cucumber strip (or green radish strip), and then the roast duck slice is rolled and eaten. In the early years, Quanjude roast duck restaurant also had a kind of millet porridge cooked with barley rice and red beans. This kind of millet porridge is beautiful in color, smooth and refreshing. After eating the roast duck and drinking a small bowl of this special millet porridge, it will definitely bring you incomparable comfort!

Lotus leaf cake, also known as white pancake, dough pancake, pancake, pancake, steamed bun, etc., can be divided into different sizes. The larger one can be more than 25cm in diameter, while the smaller one is only palm sized. It is a traditional snack popular among people in urban and rural areas of Shaanxi Province. They are available in all hotels and restaurants, as well as buffet. Lotus leaf cake is evolved from “white cake” in Qin and Han Dynasties, which has a history of more than 2000 years.

“Lotus leaf cake” is recorded in Dongjing Menghua Lu of Song Dynasty. According to the Qing Dynasty “Tiao Ding Ji” records: “pancake: the Qin people made small tin cans, containing 30 pieces of cake, each customer a can of cake, as small as oranges, can be stored with a lid. The stuffing is fried shredded pork, which is as fine as hair, and the onion is also like it. It is used in combination with pigs and sheep, and it is called “Western cake”. It can be seen that the pancake made by “Qin people” in Shaanxi Province is the lotus leaf cake now. In general, two pieces of cake with plain oil in the middle are stacked together, and two pieces can be baked at a time. In this way, the production speed is faster, the lotus leaf cake is softer and the fire color is reduced. From the perspective of the cabbage of lotus leaf cake, it is also rich and colorful. It can roll vegetables as well as meat.

Vegetable dishes include bean sprouts, mung bean sprouts, bean sprouts, bean sprouts, shredded potatoes, sauerkraut with oil, pickles, vermicelli, leek, fried soybeans, and sliced egg skin; meat dishes include cooked shredded tripe, chicken, pork, beef, mutton, lung strips, etc. Add a plate of tender whip onion and a plate of sweet sauce, if you are involved in the slice skin roast duck, it will be more delicious!

In modern times, you may be able to hear the sound of roast duck in the streets and alleys of every city, but maybe the taste is different! There may not be many chances to eat authentic “Beijing roast duck”! I hope that “Beijing roast duck” can be truly handed down in the inheritance! Let this “world delicious” not only become one of the “top ten famous Chinese dishes” in our legend, but also become one of the “top ten famous Chinese dishes” we can taste!

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